Glaucoma in Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment Options

August 11, 2023

As dog owners, we know how important it is to keep our furry friends healthy and happy. One aspect of their health that we may overlook is their eye health. Unfortunately, dogs can suffer from a range of eye conditions, including glaucoma.

Glaucoma is a condition that affects the optic nerve in the eye, leading to a buildup of pressure and potentially causing vision loss or even blindness if left untreated. It's important for dog owners to be aware of the symptoms of glaucoma and seek appropriate care for their pets.

closeup of dogs eye with glaucoma

Key Takeaways:

  • Glaucoma is a common eye condition among dogs
  • It can lead to vision loss or blindness if left untreated
  • Early detection and treatment are key to managing glaucoma in dogs

Understanding Glaucoma in Dogs

Glaucoma is a condition that affects a dog's eye and can lead to permanent vision loss if left untreated. It is caused by increased pressure in the eye, which damages the optic nerve and impairs vision. There are two forms of glaucoma in dogs: primary, which is an inherited condition, and secondary, which is caused by an underlying health problem.

Glaucoma is a progressive condition that can develop quickly and requires prompt treatment to prevent irreversible damage to the eye. If you notice any changes in your dog's eyes, such as cloudiness or redness, or if your dog is showing signs of discomfort, it's important to seek veterinary care as soon as possible.

Symptoms of Glaucoma in Dogs

Dogs suffering from glaucoma display a range of symptoms that can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Here are some of the most common symptoms to look out for:

  • Redness in the eye: The affected eye may appear red or bloodshot due to increased pressure.
  • Cloudy or hazy eye: The eye may appear cloudy or have a bluish tint due to the buildup of fluids.
  • Loss of vision: Dogs may experience a gradual or sudden loss of vision in the affected eye(s).
  • Bulging eye: In some cases, the eye may bulge or protrude from the socket.
  • Squinting or blinking: Dogs may squint or blink excessively due to discomfort or pain.
  • Behavioral changes: Dogs with glaucoma may exhibit changes in behavior or mood, such as lethargy or loss of appetite.

If you notice any of these symptoms in your dog, it's important to seek veterinary care as soon as possible. Early detection and treatment can prevent further damage and improve the chances of preserving your pet's vision.

Causes of Glaucoma in Dogs

Like in humans, there is no one specific cause for glaucoma in dogs. It occurs when there is an increase in pressure inside the eye, which can cause damage to the optic nerve and lead to vision loss or even blindness.

While the exact cause of glaucoma in dogs is not fully understood, there are several factors that can contribute to its development, including:

AgeGlaucoma is more common in older dogs, typically those over the age of six.
BreedCertain breeds, such as Cocker Spaniels, Basset Hounds, and Siberian Huskies, are more prone to developing glaucoma.
Eye injuries or inflammationInjuries or inflammation in the eye can increase the risk of developing glaucoma.
Family historyGlaucoma has a hereditary component and may be more common in dogs with a family history of the condition.
Chronic health conditionsUnderlying conditions such as hypothyroidism and diabetes can increase the risk of developing glaucoma.
MedicationsCertain medications, such as steroids, can increase intraocular pressure and contribute to the development of glaucoma.

If you suspect your dog may have glaucoma, it is important to schedule an appointment with your veterinarian as soon as possible. Identifying and addressing the underlying cause of the condition can help prevent further damage to the optic nerve and preserve your dog's vision.

Diagnosing Glaucoma in Dogs

If you suspect that your dog has glaucoma, it's important to seek veterinary care right away. Early diagnosis and treatment can help preserve your dog's vision and prevent the condition from progressing.

During a veterinary exam, your vet will likely perform a series of tests to evaluate your dog's eye health. These may include:

Test NameDescription
TonometryMeasures the pressure inside the eye. Elevated eye pressure is a key indicator of glaucoma.
OphthalmoscopyAllows the vet to examine the inside of the eye, including the optic nerve.
GonioscopyEvaluates the drainage angle of the eye, which is important in assessing the risk for developing glaucoma.

These tests are painless and typically only take a few minutes to complete. Depending on the results of the initial exam, your vet may recommend further testing or refer you to a veterinary ophthalmologist for specialized care.

Monitoring your Dog's Eye Health

If your dog is diagnosed with glaucoma, it's important to keep a close eye on their eye health moving forward. Your vet may recommend scheduling regular eye exams to monitor for changes in eye pressure and overall eye health. In addition, you should be on the lookout for any signs of discomfort or changes in vision.

By working closely with your vet and following their recommended course of treatment, you can help manage your dog's glaucoma and preserve their vision for as long as possible.

Treatment Options for Glaucoma in Dogs

If your dog has been diagnosed with glaucoma, your veterinarian will discuss the available treatment options with you. The goal of treatment is to control the intraocular pressure (IOP) and prevent further damage to the optic nerve.

Medical Management

Medications such as eye drops or oral medications can be used to decrease IOP. These medications work by either reducing the production of fluid in the eye or increasing the drainage of fluid. Your veterinarian will determine the appropriate medication and dosage for your dog based on their individual needs. It is important to follow your veterinarian's instructions carefully and administer the medication as directed.

However, be aware that some dogs may experience side effects from these medications, such as lethargy, decreased appetite, or digestive upset. If you notice any side effects, contact your veterinarian right away.

Surgical Interventions

If medical management alone is not effective or suitable for your dog, surgery may be recommended. There are several surgical options for treating glaucoma, including:

Surgery TypeDescription
TrabeculectomyA surgical procedure that creates a new drainage channel in the eye to lower IOP.
Cyclophotocoagulation (CPC)A laser treatment that targets the ciliary body and reduces the production of fluid in the eye.
Endoscopic Cyclophotocoagulation (ECP)A minimally invasive laser treatment that targets the ciliary body, similar to CPC.

Your veterinarian will discuss the potential risks and benefits of each surgical option with you, as well as the expected outcome for your dog.

Regardless of the treatment option chosen, it is important to monitor your dog's eye health closely and follow up with regular veterinary check-ups. This will help ensure that treatment is effective and any changes in your dog's condition are identified early.

Managing Glaucoma in Dogs

The management of glaucoma in dogs requires a proactive approach and ongoing attention. In addition to following any prescribed treatment plan from a veterinarian, there are some steps that dog owners can take to help manage their pet's condition.

Medication Administration

Depending on the severity of the glaucoma, a dog may require one or more prescription medications to control intraocular pressure. It is important to administer these medications exactly as directed, including any recommended dosages and frequencies. Skipping doses or stopping medication prematurely can compromise the effectiveness of treatment and put the dog's eye health at risk.

Monitoring for Changes

Owners of dogs with glaucoma should monitor their pet's eyes for any changes in appearance or behavior that may indicate a worsening of the condition. This can include increased redness, cloudiness, or discharge from the eyes, as well as changes in vision or behavior, such as bumping into objects. Keeping a log of any observed changes can help veterinarians better assess the dog's condition during follow-up appointments.

Lifestyle Adjustments

Certain lifestyle adjustments may help support a dog's overall eye health and mitigate the risk of elevated intraocular pressure. This can include limiting exercise and physical exertion, avoiding activities that require jumping or sudden movements, and providing a calm and stress-free environment. Additionally, maintaining a healthy diet and avoiding exposure to smoke and other environmental irritants can also support a dog's eye health and overall well-being.

Preventing Glaucoma in Dogs

While there is no guaranteed way to prevent glaucoma in dogs, there are steps owners can take to reduce their pet's risk of developing the condition. Regular veterinary check-ups, maintaining overall health, and promoting a safe environment are all key factors in preventing glaucoma.

During routine check-ups, your veterinarian will examine your dog's eyes and screen for any potential signs of glaucoma. By catching the condition early, treatment can be administered promptly, significantly improving the chances of success.

Keeping your dog healthy and active can also play a part in preventing glaucoma. Regular exercise, a balanced diet, and a healthy weight can all minimize the likelihood of underlying health conditions that may lead to glaucoma.

Additionally, it is important to take steps to prevent injury to your dog's eyes. This may include avoiding rough play, keeping your dog away from hazardous materials, and providing protective eyewear if necessary.

Ultimately, preventing glaucoma in dogs requires a proactive and attentive approach to their overall health and well-being. By working closely with your veterinarian and taking the necessary precautions, you can help ensure your pet remains happy and healthy for years to come.

dog with glaucoma

Glaucoma Surgery for Dogs

In some cases, medication and other non-invasive treatments may not effectively manage glaucoma in dogs. In these instances, glaucoma surgery may be necessary to alleviate pressure and prevent further damage to the eye.

There are several surgical options available for treating canine glaucoma, including laser surgery, drainage devices, and cycloablation. Each procedure has its own benefits and risks, and the choice of surgery will depend on the severity of the condition and the dog's overall health.

Surgery TypeProcedure DescriptionSuccess Rate
Laser SurgeryA laser is used to create a small hole in the iris, allowing fluid to drain and reducing pressure in the eye.50-60%
Drainage DevicesTiny tubes or shunts are implanted in the eye to improve fluid drainage and reduce pressure.70-80%
CycloablationA procedure in which the ciliary body of the eye is destroyed, reducing the production of aqueous humor and lowering pressure.80-90%

It is important to note that glaucoma surgery can have potential risks and side effects, such as infection, bleeding, or vision loss. Therefore, it is crucial for pet owners to consult with a veterinary ophthalmologist and carefully weigh the benefits and risks of each option before making a decision.

Following surgery, dogs will require careful post-operative care and monitoring to ensure proper healing and prevent complications.


Glaucoma is a serious condition that can have devastating consequences if left untreated. As a dog owner, it's vital to be aware of the symptoms and causes of canine glaucoma and seek professional veterinary care as soon as possible if you suspect your pet may be affected.

Regular veterinary check-ups can help detect glaucoma in its early stages, increasing the chances of successful treatment. If your dog is diagnosed with glaucoma, there are several treatment options available, including medication and surgery, that can help manage the condition.

It's crucial to work closely with your veterinarian to develop a plan for managing your dog's glaucoma on a day-to-day basis. This may involve administering medication, monitoring for changes, and making lifestyle adjustments to support your pet's eye health.


Prevention is always better than cure. By taking steps to maintain your dog's overall health, promoting a safe environment, and seeking professional veterinary care when needed, you can help reduce the risk of your pet developing glaucoma.

With early detection, proactive management, and a commitment to providing the best possible care for your pet, you can help ensure that your dog enjoys the best possible quality of life, even in the face of a challenging condition like glaucoma.


Q: What are the symptoms of glaucoma in dogs?

A: The symptoms of glaucoma in dogs can vary, but common signs include redness or cloudiness in the eye, enlargement or bulging of the eye, excessive tearing, squinting, and changes in behavior or appetite.

Q: What causes glaucoma in dogs?

A: Glaucoma in dogs can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic predisposition, underlying health conditions, trauma to the eye, and certain medications. It is important to work with a veterinarian to determine the underlying cause.

Q: How is glaucoma in dogs diagnosed?

A: Glaucoma in dogs is diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination conducted by a veterinarian. This may include measuring eye pressure, assessing the appearance of the optic nerve, and evaluating the dog's overall eye health.

Q: What are the treatment options for glaucoma in dogs?

A: Treatment options for glaucoma in dogs may include eye drops to reduce intraocular pressure, oral medications, laser therapy, or surgical interventions. The best approach depends on the severity of the condition and the specific needs of the dog.

Q: How can I manage glaucoma in my dog?

A: Managing glaucoma in dogs involves regular administration of prescribed medications, monitoring for changes in eye health, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle for your dog. It is important to follow the veterinarian's recommendations and seek prompt veterinary care if any concerns arise.

Q: Can glaucoma in dogs be prevented?

A: While glaucoma in dogs cannot always be prevented, there are steps you can take to reduce the risk. Regular veterinary check-ups, maintaining overall health, and creating a safe environment for your dog can help minimize the chances of developing glaucoma.

Q: What are the surgical options for treating glaucoma in dogs?

A: Surgical options for treating glaucoma in dogs may include procedures such as gonioimplantation, cycloablation, or enucleation. The specific surgery recommended will depend on the individual dog's condition and the advice of a veterinary specialist.

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