Saint Bernard: A Guide to the Loving & Loyal Giant Breed

August 22, 2023

Welcome to our comprehensive guide on the Saint Bernard breed, one of the most beloved and iconic giant dog breeds. These gentle giants trace their origins back to the Swiss Alps, where they were bred to work as hospice and rescue dogs.

Today, Saint Bernards are beloved family pets known for their loving and loyal nature. They require special care and attention due to their large size and unique needs, but their devoted personalities and gentle demeanor make them an excellent choice for the right household.

Saint Bernard in the mountains

Key Takeaways:

  • The Saint Bernard breed originates from the Swiss Alps, where they worked as hospice and rescue dogs.
  • These gentle giants require specialized care and attention due to their large size and unique needs.
  • Saint Bernards are known for their loving and loyal personalities, making them excellent family pets.

Origin and History of the Saint Bernard Breed

The Saint Bernard is a giant breed of dog that is believed to have originated in the Swiss Alps. The breed is named after the Saint Bernard Hospice, a hospice for travelers and pilgrims founded in 962 AD, which was located in the Great St. Bernard Pass in the Western Alps. The hospice was run by monks of the Saint Bernard order, who used the dogs for tasks such as search and rescue, guarding the hospice, and serving as companions to the monks.

It is believed that the ancestors of the Saint Bernard breed were large mountain dogs that lived in the Swiss Alps around 2000 years ago. These dogs were bred with mastiff-type dogs that were brought to the Alps by Roman armies. The resulting breed was originally known as the "Barry dog" or "Saint Bernard dog," and was used to protect and guard the hospice and its inhabitants.

The modern Saint Bernard breed was developed in the 17th century by crossing the original Saint Bernard dogs with other breeds such as the Newfoundland and the Great Pyrenees. The breed was refined over the years to create the gentle, loyal, and affectionate dog that we know today.

Characteristics and Physical Appearance

The Saint Bernard is a giant breed, known for its impressive size and strength. Males typically stand between 27 and 30 inches tall at the shoulder, while females are slightly smaller at 25 to 28 inches. Adult Saint Bernards can weigh between 120 and 180 pounds, with some males reaching over 200 pounds.

Their most distinctive feature is their large, broad head with a short muzzle and wrinkled forehead. Their eyes are dark and deep-set, giving them a soulful expression. Their ears are medium-sized and hang close to their head. The Saint Bernard's coat is dense and thick, with a slightly rough outer layer and a soft undercoat. They come in two varieties: smooth coat (short-haired) and rough coat (long-haired).

The coat can be white with markings in shades of red, mahogany, brindle, or black. The coat requires regular grooming, including weekly brushing to prevent matting and the occasional bath to keep them clean and smelling fresh.

Temperament and Personality Traits

The Saint Bernard is renowned for its gentle and friendly nature, making it an excellent choice for families with children. Despite their size, they are often referred to as "gentle giants" and are known for their patience, loyalty, and affectionate demeanor.

Intelligent and Trainable

Due to their high intelligence and willingness to please, Saint Bernards respond well to positive reinforcement training methods. However, it is important to start training and socializing them from a young age to prevent any potentially problematic behaviors.

It is also essential to establish yourself as the pack leader early on, as Saint Bernards have a strong instinct to protect their family and may become overly protective without proper guidance.

Affectionate and Social

Saint Bernards thrive on human interaction and enjoy spending time with their family, often following them from room to room and seeking attention and affection.

While they are generally friendly with strangers, their protective nature may cause them to be wary of those they perceive as a threat. Proper socialization can help ensure that they are comfortable in various social situations.

"Saint Bernards are incredibly loyal and loving dogs. They have a natural instinct to protect their family and are always eager to please, making them a wonderful addition to any home."

Training and Socialization

Training and socialization are crucial for any dog, but even more so for a giant breed like the Saint Bernard. Early socialization can help your Saint Bernard grow into a well-behaved and friendly dog that gets along with other animals and people.

Consistency and patience are key when training a Saint Bernard. They are intelligent dogs but can be stubborn at times, so using positive reinforcement techniques, such as treats and praise, can work wonders. Remember to keep training sessions short and fun, and always end on a positive note.

Potty Training

Potty training can be a bit challenging with a giant breed like the Saint Bernard. Be patient and consistent, and take your puppy outside frequently, especially after meals, naps, and playtime. Praise them when they do their business outside, and avoid scolding them when they have accidents indoors.

Leash Training

Leash training is an important aspect of socialization and exercise for your Saint Bernard. Start with short, positive sessions, offering treats and praise when they walk calmly on the leash. Gradually increase the length of your walks, and try to walk your Saint Bernard in different environments to expose them to different sights and sounds.

Remember, a well-trained and socialized Saint Bernard can be a joy to have around, so start early and be consistent with your training efforts.

Exercise and Activity Needs

As a giant breed, Saint Bernards require regular exercise and activity to keep them healthy and happy. It's important to provide them with daily walks and outdoor playtime, as well as opportunities for mental stimulation and socialization.

However, it's crucial to be mindful of their size and energy levels when planning activities. While they may enjoy running and playing, they are not typically suited for high-intensity activities like agility courses or marathon running.

Recommended Activities

Instead, consider low-impact activities like swimming, hiking, or even gentle playtime in the backyard. These activities provide opportunities for exercise and mental stimulation without putting undue strain on their joints and muscles.

Training can also be a form of mental exercise for Saint Bernards. They are intelligent dogs and enjoy learning new skills and tricks. Training sessions can be used to reinforce good behavior and strengthen the bond between you and your dog.

Monitoring Exercise and Health

It's important to monitor a Saint Bernard's exercise and weight to prevent health issues related to obesity and joint problems. Regular check-ups with a veterinarian can help identify and address any potential health concerns.

Overall, providing a balanced and appropriate amount of exercise and activity for your Saint Bernard can contribute to their overall health and happiness.

Grooming and Maintenance

Saint Bernards have a thick, double coat that requires regular grooming to keep it clean and healthy. Brushing their coat at least once a week will help prevent matting and remove loose fur. During shedding season, which occurs twice a year, they should be brushed more frequently to keep shedding under control.

Bathing a Saint Bernard is necessary but should not be done too often, as frequent bathing can strip the coat of its natural oils. Use a dog-specific shampoo and conditioner and rinse thoroughly to avoid skin irritation.

It is also important to regularly clean their ears to prevent infections and check their nails to ensure they don't become overgrown. Professional grooming services can be helpful in maintaining their coat and overall hygiene, especially for owners who are unable to groom their Saint Bernards themselves.

Health and Common Issues

Like most giant breeds, Saint Bernards are prone to certain health issues that potential owners should be aware of. Responsible breeding is crucial in reducing the likelihood of these problems, so it's important to choose a reputable breeder who conducts appropriate health screenings on their dogs.

Health IssueDescription
Joint ProblemsSaint Bernards are vulnerable to joint issues such as hip and elbow dysplasia, which can cause pain and mobility problems.
BloatBloat, also known as gastric torsion, is a potentially life-threatening condition where the stomach fills with gas and twists on itself. It's important to monitor your Saint Bernard's eating habits and avoid feeding them large meals in one sitting.
EctropionEctropion is a condition where the eyelids droop and can lead to eye irritation and infections. Regular eye checkups and proper grooming can help prevent this issue.
Ear InfectionsDue to their droopy ears, Saint Bernards are prone to ear infections. It's important to regularly clean and dry their ears to prevent this problem.

In addition to these common health issues, Saint Bernards are also at risk for obesity and heart problems. Regular exercise, a healthy diet, and routine vet checkups can help keep your Saint Bernard in good health.

If you notice any unusual symptoms or behaviors in your Saint Bernard, it's important to seek veterinary care promptly. Early detection and treatment can help prevent more serious health problems from developing.

Saint Bernards as Working Dogs

Saint Bernards have a remarkable history as working dogs. They are known for their incredible sense of smell and were originally bred to work in hospices and monasteries in the Swiss Alps. The dogs would help monks and nuns rescue lost travelers by using their sense of smell to locate them in the snow. They were also used as rescue dogs for travelers caught in avalanches, where they would use their strong build and powerful strength to transport people to safety.

Nowadays, Saint Bernards are not used as frequently as working dogs. However, they still have a place in modern rescue operations and make great therapy dogs. Their friendly and gentle nature makes them perfect for comforting people in hospitals or nursing homes. They are trained to interact with patients of all ages, providing comfort and happiness wherever they are needed.

Saint Bernard on a hill

Choosing a Saint Bernard

Deciding to bring a Saint Bernard into your home is a big decision that requires careful consideration. This giant breed is not suitable for every household, and potential owners should be aware of the unique needs and challenges of owning a Saint Bernard. Here are some key factors to consider when choosing a Saint Bernard:

Living Space

Saint Bernards are large dogs that require ample space to move around comfortably. They are not well-suited for small apartments or homes without a yard. If you live in a smaller space, it's important to ensure that you have enough room for your dog to exercise and play, as well as a place for them to sleep and relax.

Activity Level

While Saint Bernards are not overly energetic dogs, they do require regular exercise to keep them healthy and happy. They are not a good fit for individuals or families who do not have the time or energy to provide them with daily walks and playtime. Potential owners should also consider their own activity levels and whether they are able to keep up with a larger dog.

Training and Socialization

Saint Bernards are intelligent dogs that respond well to positive reinforcement training methods. However, they can be stubborn at times and require consistent and patient training. Socialization is also important, as Saint Bernards can be protective of their family and home. Early and ongoing socialization can help prevent shyness or aggression towards strangers or other animals.

Health and Care

Saint Bernards are prone to certain health issues, including hip dysplasia, bloat, and eye problems. It's important for potential owners to be aware of these potential issues and to choose a reputable breeder who performs health screenings on their dogs. Saint Bernards also require regular grooming, including brushing and occasional baths, to keep their thick coats healthy and free of mats.

Responsible Breeding

Choosing a responsible breeder is crucial when selecting a Saint Bernard. Reputable breeders perform health screenings on their dogs and prioritize the health and well-being of their litters. They will also provide potential owners with information about the breed, its temperament, and any potential health issues to be aware of. Avoid purchasing from puppy mills or backyard breeders, as they do not prioritize the health or welfare of their dogs.

By taking the time to consider these factors, potential owners can ensure that they are making an informed decision about bringing a Saint Bernard into their home. With their loyal and loving personalities, Saint Bernards can make wonderful additions to the right family.

Living with a Saint Bernard

Living with a Saint Bernard can be a wonderful and rewarding experience, but it is important to keep in mind their unique needs and characteristics. Here are some tips to help ensure a happy life with your Saint Bernard:

1. Living Environment

Due to their large size, Saint Bernards need plenty of space to move around and feel comfortable. A spacious home with a yard is ideal, but they can also adapt to apartment living as long as they get enough exercise and attention.

2. Exercise and Activity

Saint Bernards require moderate exercise, such as daily walks and playtime. However, it is important to avoid excessive exercise, especially during hot weather as they are susceptible to heat exhaustion.

3. Grooming

Saint Bernards have a thick, double coat that requires regular grooming to avoid matting and tangling. Brushing their coat at least once a week and bathing them every three months will help to keep them clean and healthy.

4. Training and Socialization

Training and socializing a Saint Bernard is crucial to ensuring proper behavior and obedience. Positive reinforcement techniques, such as treats and praise, work best with their gentle and sensitive personalities.

5. Health Care

Saint Bernards may be prone to certain health problems such as hip dysplasia, bloat, and heart issues. Regular vet check-ups and preventive care measures, such as a healthy diet and exercise, can help reduce the risk of these issues.

By following these tips and providing the love and attention they crave, you can enjoy a happy and fulfilling life with your furry Saint Bernard companion.

Fun Facts and Famous Saint Bernards

Did you know that Saint Bernards have been featured in various movies and TV shows over the years? One of the most notable appearances was in the popular movie "Beethoven," where a Saint Bernard named after the famous composer is the star. Other famous Saint Bernards include:

NameClaim to Fame
BerryThe first dog to ever be recorded having saved someone in the Alps in 1820
BarryA Saint Bernard responsible for saving the lives of over 40 people in the Alps
NanaThe nursemaid, pet dog, and friend of the Darling children in J.M. Barrie's "Peter Pan"
LuathA Saint Bernard featured in the classic children's book "The Incredible Journey"

Another interesting fact about Saint Bernards is their association with hospice work. Saint Bernards were originally bred for rescue and search operations, but they were also used in Swiss hospices, where they provided comfort and companionship to patients. This tradition continues today, with some Saint Bernards trained as therapy dogs to help patients dealing with illness or injury.

Overall, Saint Bernards have made their mark on popular culture and history in their roles as rescuers, companions, and beloved pets. Their gentle and loyal nature has made them a favorite for families and individuals alike.


Overall, the Saint Bernard is a loving and loyal giant breed that has captured the hearts of many dog enthusiasts. From its origins in the Swiss Alps to its role as a hospice and rescue dog, the Saint Bernard carries a rich and fascinating history. Their gentle and friendly nature make them ideal family dogs, but potential owners should be aware of their exercise and grooming needs as well as potential health issues.

If you are considering adding a Saint Bernard to your family, be sure to choose a responsible breeder and consider your living situation carefully. With proper training, socialization, and care, your Saint Bernard can make a wonderful and rewarding companion.


Q: What is the average size of a Saint Bernard?

A: Saint Bernards are a giant breed, with males typically weighing between 140-180 pounds and standing 27-30 inches tall at the shoulder. Females are slightly smaller, weighing between 120-140 pounds and standing 25-28 inches tall.

Q: Are Saint Bernards good with children?

A: Yes, Saint Bernards are known for their gentle and friendly nature, making them great companions for children. They are patient and tolerant, and often become protective of their family members.

Q: Do Saint Bernards require a lot of exercise?

A: While Saint Bernards are not as active as some other breeds, they still require regular exercise to maintain their health. Daily walks and moderate playtime should be sufficient to meet their exercise needs.

Q: Are Saint Bernards prone to any health issues?

A: Yes, like many giant breeds, Saint Bernards can be prone to certain health issues, including hip and elbow dysplasia, bloat, and heart conditions. Regular veterinary check-ups and a healthy diet are important for their overall well-being.

Q: How often should I groom my Saint Bernard?

A: Saint Bernards have a dense, double coat that requires regular grooming. Weekly brushing is recommended to prevent matting and to keep their coat looking its best. They also shed moderately, so be prepared for some hair around the house.

Q: Can Saint Bernards be trained easily?

A: Yes, Saint Bernards are intelligent and eager to please, making them generally responsive to training. However, they can also be stubborn at times, so consistent and patient training methods work best.

Q: How long do Saint Bernards typically live?

A: On average, Saint Bernards have a lifespan of around 8-10 years. However, with proper care, some Saint Bernards have been known to live even longer.

Q: Are Saint Bernards suitable for apartment living?

A: Due to their large size and exercise needs, Saint Bernards are generally not recommended for apartment living. They are better suited to homes with large yards or access to open spaces.

Q: Are Saint Bernards good guard dogs?

A: While Saint Bernards are known for their imposing size, they are generally not aggressive by nature and may not make the best guard dogs. However, their presence alone can be a deterrent to potential intruders.

Q: Can Saint Bernards tolerate cold weather?

A: Yes, Saint Bernards have a thick double coat that provides them with protection against cold weather. Their history in the Swiss Alps, where they were used for rescues in deep snow, is a testament to their ability to handle cold temperatures.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *